'''Herbert Spencer''' (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist
, and prominent Classical liberalism|classical liberal political theorist
of the Victorian era
Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolutionism|evolution
as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. As a polymath
, he contributed to a wide range of subjects, including ethics, religion, anthropology, economics, political theory, philosophy, literature, astronomy, biology, sociology, and psychology. During his lifetime he achieved tremendous authority, mainly in English-speaking academia. "The only other English philosopher to have achieved anything like such widespread popularity was Bertrand Russell
, and that was in the 20th century."
[Richards, Peter (4 November 2010)... ]